Recent Warming of Lake Biwa Water
Water temperature has increased rapidly over the last decade in Lake Biwa, undoubtedly due to global warming. Deep water has warmed significantly following a succession of mild winters in recent years. The minimum temperature is formed by the overturn in winter and is conserved in the deep water throughout the stratification period in monomictic lakes such as Lake Biwa. This warming of the lake water and the weakening of the overturn in winter should seriously affect the metabolism and ecosystem in the lake.

"Recent Warming of Lake Biwa Water" (PDF)
by Shuichi ENDOH, Shuhei YAMASHITA, Motoko KAWAKAMI and Yasuaki OKUMURA,
Japanese Journal of Limnology, 60-2, 223-228, 1999.

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